CRPD Article 7 | Inclusive Playground part3共融式遊戲場 | Eden Social Welfare Foundation 伊甸基金會

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台灣身心障礙孩童的遊戲權逐漸抬頭,台北市所設置的共融式遊戲場,多半參考國外的設計,但因為台灣腹地狹小,該如何克服這個問題呢?而國外又有哪些設計、哪些理念是值得我們借鏡參考的呢?

Playing safely in the park for children with disabilities has been getting attention in Taiwan.  The models of foreign inclusive playgrounds are often taken as examples for designing playgrounds in Taipei City.  However, compared to other countries, the land of Taiwan is quite small.  What shall we do to overcome this problem?  What other foreign designs can be great examples for us to learn from?

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文│郭依瑄          攝影│何維綱       照片來源│經典顧問公司、潤鉅遊樂公司

Article | Guo I-Xuan     Photo | He Wei-Gang

Photo Provider | Classic Design and Planning Co. ,Ltd. , RunJu Playground Equipment Co. ,Ltd.

 

中原大學講師劉柏宏具有多年景觀設計的專業背景,是「經典工程顧問」的負責人,近年來參與設計了:大港墘公園、中和四號公園等等。

「台灣比較早落成的共融式遊戲場,有不少規格品,遊戲的區域劃分也比較明顯,少有孩童一起參與設計的概念。而國外的案例,除了規格品,還會與身障者、孩童一起討論設計,像加州的魔法橋遊戲場就是個很好的例子。」劉柏宏如是說。

 

The instructor of Chung Yuan Christian University Liu Bo-Hong, who is in charge of Classic Design and Planning Co. Ltd., has been an expert in landscaping for years.  He has participated in the designs of Dai Gangqian Park, Zhuyin Park Number 4, etc.     

In the early years, the inclusive playgrounds of Taiwan were usually composed of standardized equipment and playground zoning was more apparent. There was a lack of the concept that children should participate in designing playgrounds.  However, in foreign cases, people with disabilities and children took part in designing besides standardized equipment. “ Magical Bridge Playground in California is a great example.” Liu Bo-Hong said.

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談國外優秀共融遊戲場

 

由智能及肢體障礙者的母親花費七年時間募資,Palo Alto市政府設計的魔法橋遊戲場於2015年開幕,是座適合全齡遊戲的歡樂園地,位於陽光明媚的加州,每個月都能吸引兩萬五千名的遊客。園區共分為搖擺區、滑行攀爬區、幼童區、旋轉區、野餐區等等區塊,其遊具組成大部分為身障者、設計師、職能治療師研發,只有部分是向遊具廠商購置規格品

 

The Outstanding Inclusive Playgrounds Oversea

 

The mothers of children with mental and physical disabilities have raised funds for seven years to build the Magical Bridge Playground.  Magical Bridge Playground designed by Palo Alto City Hall is located in sunny California.  The fun playground was opened in 2015 for all ages and all abilities.  25,000 visitors visit every month.  Magical Bridge Playground is divided into Swinging Zone, Sliding and Climbing Zone, Toddler Zone, Spinning Zone, Picnic area, etc. Most of the equipment in the playground was designed by people with disabilities, designers, and occupational therapists.  There was only some standardized equipment bought by companies.

 

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劉柏宏更指出:「除了孩子們參與設計外,『遊環構造設計』更是現在的趨勢。」由日本建築師─仙田滿先生於1980年提出的論文提到「遊環構造設計」這個概念。他建議:如能為孩子們設計一個環狀的遊戲空間,這樣就有循回的功能,動線不單調讓環境富有變化,能滿足孩子的探險需求。他甚至希望孩子能成為空間設計的主角,因為利用周遭環境打造成遊戲場,是孩子的本能天賦。

 

Liu Bo-Hong also points out that the “Play Structures of Circularity” should be the bigger focus apart from giving children the opportunity to participate in the designing process. In 1980, Japanese architect Mitsuru Senda published his paper with a new concept of play structures, the Circular Play System. He suggested that following a circular route to play should bring players back to a natural end of the route.  The circular routes could diverse environment and inspire the exploration of children.  He even hoped that children could be the main designers because children were born with the inclination to turn spaces into playgrounds.

 

(圖說:仙田滿先生提出的遊環構造。) (圖片來源:經典工程顧問提供)
( Photo:Circular Play System by Mitsuru Senda ) (Resource: by Classic Design and Planning Co. Ltd.)

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Odd3Oh5LOqE

而加拿大的「沙羅曼達遊戲場」( — Montréal, Québec.) 於2009年落成,是用蠑螈為意象,公園內黑色的攀爬岩石代表著它的眼睛,蠑螈身體的各個部位有著劃分遊戲區域的用途,切和了仙田滿的遊環構造設計,是座加入共融式遊具與遊環設計的良好遊戲場。

 

Salamander Playground was built in Montreal, Quebec, Canada in 2009.  The shape of the salamander is the symbol of the landscape and the black rocks of the rock-climbing equipment look like the salamander’s eyes.  The salamander is divided into several zones with different purposes.   It meets the idea of Circular Play System of Mitsuru Senda.  It is an excellent playground integrating inclusive playground equipment and the design of Circular Play System.

 

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使用者共融 空間也要共融

 

劉柏宏分享道:「上次我們為了華山公園舉辦『我的遊戲小島』設計工作體驗坊,我們找來幾位孩子參與設計,提供了黏土等一些器材,讓父母引導他們自由創作,並了解這些設計動機。」這些個性迥異的孩子們替將來要打造的公園,提供了許多天馬行空的想法,最後劉柏宏將他們的設計整合,目前將與相關部門統整資料,孩子們都十分期待破土動工。

 

The Inclusive Space for Players

 

Liu Bo-Hong shared his experience.  ”Last time, we had a designing workshop, ‘ My Little Play Island’, in Huashan 1914 Creative Park.  We called on some children to participate in designing of My Little Play Island”.  We supplied some materials and tools, such as clay, and asked parents to not only allow their children to use their creativity to explore but also understand their children’s motivation for design. Children have many individual characteristics and brought many creative ideas for the park.Liu Bo-Hong integrated the creative ideas and put them into the park with other related designs.  With the new design concept in mind, children are excited to see the outcome.

(圖說:「我的小島」設計工作體驗坊。) (圖片來源:經典工程顧問提供)

(Photo: “My Little Play Island “workshop) (Resource: by Classic Design and Planning Co. Ltd.)

 

「景觀設計的優勢在於利用地形來設計共融式遊戲場,就不會有過多的人造斜坡,讓身障者就能『不知不覺』的抵達目的地,身障設施不是東加西加,而是應該從根本考慮。例如溜滑梯,如果能考慮到地形,直接設置在高處,就能讓身障者利用緩坡上去,讓他們感覺不到空間的限制。」

 

「雙融」的概念是劉柏宏一直提倡的,除了身障者能和一般使用者共同使用,讓遊具能融和多種目的、遊環設計的多種搭配動線更是減少腹地浪費的好方法。位於內湖的大港墘公園,就是一步步朝向理想邁進的公園。其占地廣達2.5公頃,分為森林廣場、兒童遊戲區、觀山大草原、雨水花園、香藥草廣場數個部分。

 

“ The advantage of landscaping inclusive playgrounds comes from the utilization of the natural landscape – not having to create artificial slopes. It allows people with physical disabilities to move freely to where they want to go.  Designing with the disabled in mind, equipment should be based on the needs of those people rather than be added at will. For instance, if the slide is set on the hillside, disabled people can move along with the natural slopes up to the slide without being physically limited. Liu Bo-Hong always stresses on the bi-integrating concept not only to include people with all abilities but also to create equipment with various purposes. The Circular Play System creates various playing routes whilst using the same equipment; thus, minimizing land usage. Dai Gangqian park in Neihu is slowly becominga dream park.  The 2.5 hectares land of Dai Gangqian park is divided into Natural Zone, Kids Play Zone, Mountain Observing Grassland, Rainfall Garden, and Herbal Square.

 

(圖說:「我的小島」設計工作體驗坊,用黏土捏成的示意圖。) (圖片來源:經典工程顧問提供)

(Photo: “My Little Play Island “workshop, the clay model )  (Resource: by Classic Design and Planning Co. Ltd.)

 

兒童遊戲區內有許多自然材質設計,例如:木頭攀爬小山丘、平衡木樁等等多種木頭製品,

而一旁的不規則的金屬攀爬設施,能讓孩子無線迴圈的攀爬。

人造草皮繩索區,考慮到自閉症孩童的躲藏需要,有個水管小通道。

還有多人盪鞦韆,減少盪鞦韆總是需要等待的狀況。

 

In Kids Play Zone, there is some natural wooden equipment, such as Log Stack Climber and Log Balance Beam.  Besides those, the irregular mental climber allows children to keep climbing on with no end.  In the Rope-Climbing Zone, the small tube channel under the artificial grassland can be used as a hiding place for children with Kanner syndrome.  The bigger size of the swing seat allows of more people swinging at a time; therefore, the waiting time is decreased.

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小力量 大改變

 

近幾年因為特色公園聯盟發起的「拒絕罐頭校園,還我特色遊具」行動和各方倡議下,讓大眾注意到公園遊具對孩子發展的重要性、身障孩童的遊戲平等權,使得許多專業的人士接續投入此領域。然而,從各個公園的落成的先後順序可以明顯感受得到,外觀、遊具功能、動線,設計考量亦趨細膩,人民小小意見回饋集結成的力量,正在一點一滴改變這個國家。

 

Small Moves Big Changes

 

In recent years, under the efforts of PFC  (Parks and Playgrounds for Children by Children), who has taken acts with the slogan‘ Say no to the poor-quality and infantilized cookie-cutter playset.  Say yes to the inclusive playground equipment.’ , and other volunteering groups, people have been aware of the importance of playground equipment to developing children as well as the equal right for the disabled children to play safely in the park.  More and more experts continue to work on these issues.

However, the landscape of the parks, the functions of equipment and the playing routes are different across all parks and will change over time. Yet, small moves to help more people understand the idea of inclusive playgrounds will nonetheless provide big changes to this country.

 

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補充說明:

文章中提到的國外遊戲場,都是以孩子「遊戲」做為前提,比較少融和教育,而潤鉅遊樂公司負責人林欣樺小姐,提供了另一種類型的共融遊戲場的資料:西班牙的環保回收共融遊戲場(the city of almeria spain playground)於2014年啟用,是一座能讓孩子們在遊戲中學習環保概念的遊戲場。遊戲場內不管是溜滑梯、互動遊戲設施、擺盪設施,都有回收標誌,與環保主題環環相扣,讓孩子們在遊戲中了解保護環境的重要性。

Footnote:

The foreign playgrounds mentioned in this article all focus on the playing of children with little aspects of education.  However, Mrs. Lin Chia-Hua, who is in charge of Runju Playground Equipment Co. Ltd., showed us another type of inclusive playground -The City of Almeria Spain Playground.  The City of Almeria Spain Playground was opened in 2014 in Spain.  Children learn the recycling process through the specific play equipment.  On the playground, the recycling marks can be seen on the slides, interactive play equipment, and swings.  All the designs are related to recycling issues.  Children can not only have fun but also learn about the importance of environmental protection.

 

 (Photo: The City of Almeria Spain Playground)      (Resource: Runju Playground Equipment Co. ,Ltd.)

 

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CRPD Article 7 Children with disabilities 身心障礙兒童

1. States Parties shall take all necessary measures to ensure the full enjoyment by children with disabilities of all human rights and fundamental freedoms on an equal basis with other children.

締約各國應當採取一切必要措施,確保身心障礙兒童在與其他兒童平等的基礎上,充分享有一切人權和基本自由。